The gap between early and current quantum computing architectures and practical quantum computers is wide due to being unable to achieve fault tolerance using quantum error correction reliably. A new paper aims to bridge this gap
However, error correction in quantum computers is costly, especially when performing fault-tolerant logical operations on logical qubits. Logical qubits are encoded physical qubits and protected by codes. Among the most efficient ways to implement logical operations is lattice surgery. Lattice surgery sees groups of physical qubits that are merged on lattices merged and split to realise the entangling gates and to teleport logical information.
In a new study, scientists performed lattice surgery between 2 qubits protected by a topological error-correction code within a 10-qubit ion-trap quantum information processor. This novel arrangement allowed the scientists to perform the non-demolition quantum measurements using local and entangling gates, coupled with measurements on auxiliary qubits. Entanglement between 2 logical qubits was achieved and the logical state teleportation between them was successful.
This experiment shows that lattice surgery can be useful for building fault-tolerant quantum computers.
See the original Nature Source here