Quantum firmware and the quantum computing stacket al. , https://arxiv.org/abs/2001.04060. 11. H. Ball Hardware characterization, known as system identification in the control-theoretic literature, has benefited from a large body of experimental and theoretical developments. Physics Today, Much like NMR, quantum computing hardware—whether trapped ions, neutral atoms, superconducting circuits, or another technology—generally relies on precisely engineered light–matter interactions to enact quantum logic. T. J. Tarn, G. Huang, J. W. Clark,, 109 (1980); https://doi.org/10.1016/0270-0255(80)90011-1 J. W. Clark, D. G. Lucarelli, T.-J. A. D. Tranter, 4360 (2018); https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-06847-1 P. B. Wigley, 25890 (2016); https://doi.org/10.1038/srep25890 B. M. Henson, 13216 (2018). More recent results demonstrate that numerically optimized gates can mitigate the effects of hardware imperfections in cloud quantum computers, thereby suppressing pulse-amplitude, off-resonance, and cross-talk errors. Open-loop control strategies are broadly used to suppress errors in state-of-the-art quantum computer hardware; for example, in certain settings, DRAG (derivative removal by adiabatic gate) pulses— (For more on quantum cryptography, see the article by Marcos Curty, Koji Azuma, and Hoi-Kwong Lo on page 36 of this issue.)
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